I have added Chiara Gianollo and Nikolaos Lavidas’ paper, “Cognate Adverbials and Case in the History of Greek” to the Comprehensive Bibliography of Hellenistic Greek Linguistics. While the title implies coverage of a wide range of history, the argument is based on Biblical Greek.
- Gianollo, Chiara, and Nikolaos Lavidas. Cognate Adverbials and Case in the History of Greek. Studies in Greek Linguistics 33 (2013) pp. 61-75.
The article is available online at the website of the Institute of Modern Greek Studies at Aristotle University at Thessaloniki.
Almost a year ago Jonathan Robie and I did a presentation at SBL on the use of XML for structuring databases for the Greek text of the New Testament. Since that time we have been discussing the ways our work can support the creation of materials for teaching Ancient Greek using what has come to be called the Communicative Method.
We will be presenting again this year, but this time in a session dedicated to computer assisted language acquisition. Our talk will be on Sunday afternoon (11/22/2015) in Atlanta in session S22-206, Applied Linguistics for Biblical Languages; Global Education and Research Technology. The theme of that session will be Computer-Aided Language Acquisition for Greek and Hebrew.
A part of what we will do is present a brief lesson snippet illustrating the method we recommend. In preparation for this I recently wrote a lesson using the Greek text of Matthew 2:12-13 based on methods that I regularly use for teaching both English and Spanish.
I have decided to post that lesson both here and on the b-Greek forum.
I would love to hear suggestions for improvement. As I receive suggestions either here or on b-Greek, I am making the necessary changes in the text below. Notations about these changes are entered in gray text.
THE LESSON PLAN:
Objective: Students will demonstrate comprehension of a short text with multiple participles responding orally and in writing to comprehension questions.
I. Build Background Knowledge/Access Prior Knowledge:
Use this section to prepare the students for reading Matthew 2:12-13.
A. Teach χρηματίζω
Stand near the box.
- If you only have one student, say:
Μὴ ἅψαι τοῦ κιβωτίου. Χρηματίζω σοι, μὴ ἅψασθαι ἐκείνου. Ἐπικίνδυνος ἐστίν.
For multiple students, say:
Μὴ ἅψασθε τοῦ κιβωτίου. Χρηματίζω αὐτοῖς, μὴ ἅψασθαι ἐκείνου. Ἐπικίνδυνος ἐστίν.
Thank you, Stephen Hughes and Carl Conrad, for suggesting significant improvements to the Greek statements above on the b-Greek forum.
- As you say Χρηματίζω, extend your hands (palms forward) toward the audience as if to prevent anyone from approaching.
- As you say σοι or αὐτοῖς, open your hands toward the student(s).
- If necessary, repeat the phrase Χρηματίζω σοι or Χρηματίζω αὐτοῖς before proceeding.
- For μὴ ἅψασθαι, shake your index finger back and forth and sign “touch” (http://www.lifeprint.com/asl101/pages-signs/t/touch.htm).
- When you say ἐκείνου, point to the box.
- As you say Ἐπικίνδυνος ἐστίν, move your finger from left to right under the word ἐπικίνδυνον on the box as if underlining it, but don’t touch the box.
- Repeat this procedure if necessary.
B. Teach ἀναχωρῶ (ἀναχωρέω) and ἀνακάμπτω
- Standing next to the sign, ὁ οἴκος μου, gesture toward the other sign as you say, Ἔρχομαι εἰς τὸν οἴκον τοῦ θεοῦ. As you say this, start walking to the sign, ὁ οἴκος τοῦ θεοῦ. When you arrive, look back at the first sign a
nd say, ἀναχωρῶ εἰς τὸν οἴκον μου. Walk back to the first sign.
- Repeat this sequence substituting ἀνακάμπτω for ἀναχωρῶ. Repeat the entire sequence (using ἀναχωρῶ and ἀνακάμπτω) as necessary.
- On the last repetition, say ἀναχωρῶ, ἀνακάμπτω εἰς τὸν οἴκον μου as you begin to return.
- Summarize: Gesturing to indicate the direction of each trip, say, “πρώτον, ἔρχομαι.
ἀναχωρεῖν καὶ ἀνακάμπτειν ἴσα εἰσίν.”
Repeat as needed.
C. Teach ἴσθι ἐκεῖ
Lead a student to the sign ὁ οἴκός μου. Step a few feet away from the student, point to the spot where the student is standing, and raising both palms toward the student, say, ἴσθι ἐκεῖ. Walk away. If the student moves, lead him or her back to the sign and repeat.
Repeat as needed until the student realizes that you want him or her to stay. When the student successfully follows the direction, say καλόν (the adverb related to καλός).
D. Teach ἕως ἂν εἴπω σοι
Stephen Hughes made the following suggestion on the b-Greek forum regarding teaching this phrase:
This could be used for a game. Students could repeat an action till you tell them to stop. Useful vocab. might be; Κροῦε (Κρούετε) τὰς χεῖρας ἕως ἂν εἴπω σοι (ἡμῖν), Ἀνάσειε (Ἀνασείετε) τὴν χεῖρα ἕως ἂν εἴπω σοι (ἡμῖν). “Clap your hands”, “Wave your hand in the air”. μὴ παῦσον / παύσατε, οὔπω εἶπον. παῦσον κρούων / ἀνασείων (παύσατε κρούοντες / ἀνασείοντες).
ΙI. Reading: Matthew 2:12—13.
Many class members will have heard the story of the flight to Egypt in their native language. This context will help them comprehend the meaning of several words in their Greek context. Read the passage aloud slowly without translation.
A. Scaffolded Reading
Read the text a second time as printed below without the online support. You can use your own Greek New Testament if you wish, just make sure to stop at the appropriate place (with the words ἕως ἂν εἴπω σοι).
As you read, point to places in the classroom where you illustrated relevant vocabulary. Repeat key phrases from the lesson as needed to prompt memory.
Matt. 2:12 καὶ χρηματισθέντες κατ᾿ ὄναρ μὴ ἀνακάμψαι πρὸς Ἡρῴδην, δι᾿ ἄλλης ὁδοῦ ἀνεχώρησαν εἰς τὴν χώραν αὐτῶν.
13 Ἀναχωρησάντων δὲ αὐτῶν ἰδοὺ ἄγγελος κυρίου φαίνεται κατ᾿ ὄναρ τῷ Ἰωσὴφ λέγων· ἐγερθεὶς παράλαβε τὸ παιδίον καὶ τὴν μητέρα αὐτοῦ καὶ φεῦγε εἰς Αἴγυπτον καὶ ἴσθι ἐκεῖ ἕως ἂν εἴπω σοι·
III. Identify Student Success (Formative Assessment of Comprehension).
After the re-reading, distribute the student page (see χαρτηρία τοῦ μαθητοῦ below). Use this as an informal assessment of how well your lesson has gone. Can the students answer the questions effectively?
A. Oral Assessment
Ask the following questions to eliciting oral responses. Possible answers are given here in parentheses. The questions are displayed on the last page of the online presentation as well. Keep that version displayed as you ask these questions.
- τίς ἐχρηματίσθη;
(οἱ μάγοι, ὁ Ἰωσήφ, οἱ μάγοι καὶ ὁ Ἰωσήφ)
- πῶς ἐχρηματίσθη ὁ Ἰωσήφ; (κατ᾽ ὄναρ)
- πῶς ἐχρηματίσθησαν οἱ μάγοι; (κατ᾽ ὄναρ)
- τὶς πρῶτον ἐχρηματίσθη, ὁ Ἰωσήφ, ἤ οἰ μάγοι;
- Ἀνεχώρησαν οἱ μάγοι πρὶν χρηματίσθηναι ὁ Ἰωσήφ ἢ ὕστερον; (πρίν) [Note: The adverbs πρὶν and ὕστερον may be unfamiliar, but should be easy to illustrate.]
- τὶς ἀνήκαμψε / τίνες ἀνηκάμψαν εἰς τὴν χώραν αὐτοῦ / αὐτῶν;
B. Written Assessment
Distribute copies of the student page show below. Have the students write their answers on the student page. These are the same questions they just answered orally. You can either read them aloud a second time and ask for written responses or allow the students to work in pairs reading the questions to each other and negotiating answers.
χάρτης τῶν μαθητῶν
Γράψον τὸ ὄνομά σου· ____________________
Ἀποκρίνου ἕκαστον ἐρώτημα
- τίς ἐχρηματίσθη;
- πῶς ἐχρηματίσθη ὁ Ἰωσήφ;
- πῶς ἐχρηματίσθησαν οἱ μάγοι;
- τὶς πρῶτον ἐχρηματίσθη;
- Ἀνεχώρησαν οἱ μάγοι εἰς τὴν χώραν αὐτῶν πρὶν χρηματίσθηναι ὁ Ἰωσήφ ἢ ὕστερον;
- τὶς ἀνήκαμψε / τίνες ἀνηκάμψαν εἰς τὴν χώραν αὐτοῦ / αὐτῶν;
I would like to offer sincere thanks to Stephen Hughes who took the time to read through this lesson on the b-Greek forum, catching several careless mistakes and offering significant advice for improvement.
Lesson 21: “More on the Aorist Middle and Passive” is now cell-phone ready and HTML5 compliant. Those of you using the grammar on your mobile device should have a better experience with this lesson now. The rest of you may also enjoy the new look.
Thank you Wray Bryant, for pointing out the following bibliography of Greek Palaeography. While it does not apply a particular variety of Modern Linguistics to the study of Hellenistic Greek (the criteria for inclusion in the bibliography here at Greek-Language.com), it is certainly of value to anyone interested in the history of writing in Greek.
- Greek Palaeography and Byzantine Book Culture: A Bibliographical Essay, by Stratis Papaioannou
The bibliography is available at Academia.edu. Log in (or sign up for a free account), then paste the following link into your browser:
If you are accessing the grammar on a cell phone with a different browser, please let me know, and I’ll test the grammar for your special circumstances.
I’m working on Greek lessons in Miraflores, Lima, Perú. Lessons 1 to 15 are now HTML5 compliant.
I would like to thank those of you who have submitted suggestions and corrections. As I convert the files to HTML5, problems inevitably arise, and it’s wonderful to have dedicated readers who have the confidence to point them out.
The climate here in Miraflores is amazing. It’s winter. The picture above was taken yesterday. It shows the patio at my wife’s aunt Chabuca’s house. All of metropolitan Lima sits on a desert, so such gardens need careful attention.
Here’s the one at her parent’s house where I’m working these days. It’s a nice place to work on Greek grammar. If things go well, I’ll be able to complete the revision of the rest of the lessons before returning to the U.S. in August.
I will not be able to respond to email or comments on this blog this week (June 28—July 5, 2015). I’ll be back at work on the site on Monday, July 6.
Have a wonderful week.